The history of India begins with affirmation of animal action of Homo sapiens as continued as 75,000 years ago, or with beforehand hominids including Homo erectus from about 500,000 years ago The Indus Valley Civilization, which advance and flourished in the northwestern allotment of the Indian subcontinent from c. 4000 to 1300 BCE in abreast Pakistan and northwest India, was the aboriginal above acculturation in South Asia A adult and technologically avant-garde burghal ability developed in the Mature Harappa period, from 2600 to 1900 BCE. This Bronze Age acculturation burst afore the end of the additional millennium BCE and was followed by the Iron Age Vedic Civilization, which continued over abundant of the Indo-Gangetic apparent and which witnessed the acceleration of above polities accepted as the Mahajanapadas. In one of these kingdoms, Magadha, Mahavira and Gautama Buddha were built-in in the 6th or 5th century BCE and broadcast their śramanic philosophies.
Most of the subcontinent was baffled by the Marya Empire during the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. It became fragmented, with assorted locations disqualified by abundant Middle kingdoms for the next 1,500 years. This is accepted as the classical century of Indian history, during which time India has sometimes been estimated to accept had the better abridgement of the age-old and medieval world, with its huge citizenry breeding amid one fourth and one third of the world's assets up to the 18th century.
Much of arctic and axial India was affiliated in the 4th century CE, and remained so for two centuries, beneath the Gupta Empire. This period, witnessing a Hindu religious and bookish resurgence, is accepted a part of its admirers as the "Golden Age of India". From this time, and for several centuries afterwards, southern India, beneath the aphorism of the Chalukyas, Cholas, Pallavas, and Pandyas, accomplished its own aureate age. During this period, aspects of Indian civilization, administration, culture, and adoration (Hinduism and Buddhism) advance too abundant of Asia.
Kingdoms in southern India had amphibian business links with the Roman Empire from about 77 CE. Muslim aphorism in the subcontinent began in 8th century CE if the Arab accepted Muhammad bin Qasim baffled Sindh and Multan in southern Punjab in avant-garde day Pakistan ambience the date for several alternating invasions from Axial Asia amid the 10th and 15th centuries CE, arch to the accumulation of Muslim empires in the Indian subcontinent such as the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire.
Mughal aphorism came from Axial Asia to awning a lot of the arctic locations of the subcontinent. Mughal rulers alien Axial Asian art and architectonics to India. In accession to the Mughals and assorted Rajput kingdoms, several absolute Hindu states, such as the Vijayanagara Empire, the Maratha Empire, Eastern Ganga Empire and the Ahom Kingdom, flourished contemporaneously in southern, western, eastern and northeastern India respectively. The Mughal Empire suffered a bit-by-bit abatement in the aboriginal 18th century, which provided opportunities for the Afghans, Balochis, Sikhs, and Marathas to exercise advantage over ample areas in the northwest of the subcontinent until the British East India Company acquired advantage over South Asia. Beginning in the mid-18th century and over the next century, ample areas of India were annexed by the British East India Company. Dissatisfaction with Company aphorism led to the Indian Rebellion of 1857, afterwards which the British ambit of India were anon administered by the British Crown and witnessed a aeon of both accelerated development of basement and bread-and-butter decline. During the aboriginal bisected of the 20th century, a civic attempt for ability was launched by the Indian National Congress and afterwards abutting by the Muslim League. The subcontinent acquired ability from the united Kingdom in 1947, afterwards the British ambit were abstracted into the dominions of India and Pakistan and the baronial states all acceded to one of the new states.